Around the 4th millenium BC there emerged a warlike people from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe in Eurasia.
Through a lightening fast sweep, they conquered and swallowed up all the lands and cultures around them.
Never before in the history of the world did the indigenous people of Europe and Southern Asia face such a terrible foe before.
The indigenous people of Old Europe and South Asia had fought tribes before that were culturally identical to them, but never ever before in their entire history had they encountered such a strange alien force as they did then.
These alien forces did a very odd and unnatural thing, something which no other people did before them.
They rode on horses.
They were the very first people that actually domesticated horses, around the same time that they started conquering.
They themselves were probably baffled by the capabilities the horse offered them.
In addition to that these Steppe people also invented the wheel and the chariot, two inventions that truly changed the course of human history.
Within no time they could expand in every direction they wanted, while all other human tribes in the world were still confined to their feet.
This alien tribe that emerged from the Caspian Steppes are known to us as the Aryans.
The word Aryan however comes from the Vedic Sanskrit root word “Arya” , which meant a noble person in the religious, cultural and linguistic sense.
Unlike early 20th Century assumptions among many European racial ideologies, the word Aryan never referred to all racial descendants of the Pontic-Caspian Steppe people.
The word probably originated around the Indus Valley and present-day Iran, and is restricted to the Avestan and Vedic scriptures.
We will probably never know what those people that domesticated horses on the Eurasian steppes, truly called themselves.
Today however in all scholarly circles they are referred to as Proto-Indo-Europeans.
Proto from Greek, meaning: “first”.
All present day Indo-European languages originated from the prehistoric language that these people spoke.
They spoke a language which is the mother of 445 living languages.
These 445 living languages thus consist of one big language family.
It is therefore highly unlikely that you don’t speak an Indo-European language yourself.
For this reason you could say that these Proto-Indo-Europeans or Aryans as we’d love to call them, are probably your cultural ancestors.
However the Indo-European language family that they have left behind in their wake of conquest, consists of a lot of different branches and groups.
Lets start with the Easternmost branch of this language family, which is the branch from which we have derived the word Aryan itself as I’ve already explained before.
“The Indo-Iranians and their expansion are strongly associated with the Proto-Indo-European invention of the chariot. It is assumed that this expansion spread from the Proto-Indo-European homeland north of the Caspian sea south to the Caucasus, Central Asia, the Iranian plateau, and Northern India. They also expanded into Mesopotamia and Syria and introduced the horse and chariot culture to this part of the world.”
The Indo-Iranian branch consists of two main language groups:
Most languages in the Indo-Iranian branch reside in this group with almost 1.5 billion speakers. These are the languages spoken in Northern India like Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi, Marathi, Gujarati, Bhojpuri, Kashmiri, Rajasthani and Bengali.
All these languages have descended from an ancient classical language called Vedic Sanskrit. This language has been used in ancient times by the Aryans to preserve the most sacred of hymns in the Vedas, which are the main religious texts of Hinduism.
It is described in early Vedic literature that the whole of Northern India belonged to the Aryans. They literally called it Aryavarta meaning “The abode of the Aryans”.
“That which lies between the Himavat and the Vindhya mountains which (extends) as far as the eastern and the western oceans, the wise call Aryavarta (the country of the Aryans).”
– Manusmriti 2:22
These are languages spoken by the people of Iran.
Take note about the fact that Iran literally means “Land of the Aryans” as well.
Approximately 150-200 million people speak these Iranian languages.
The Old Iranian language from which the present-day languages have derived is called Avestan.
And the language is mainly known for its use of reading the Avesta which was the holy religious book of Zoroastrianism, the old Iranian religion.
In the same way Vedic Sanskrit was derived from the Vedas.
Vedic Sanskrit and Avestan have both been derived from two prehistoric sister languages with a common ancestor, which was the Proto-Indo-Iranian root language.
Approximately 95% of all European languages are part of the Indo-European language family.
However just like the Indo-Iranian branch, the European branch also consists of several distinct groups.
There are three major groups namely:
Several other minor groups are:
The Germanic languages are the dominant language group in Northwestern Europe and is spoken by around 200 million native people.
It consists of languages like German, English, Dutch, Danish, Swedish and Norwegian.
The Romance languages are all European languages that have descended from Latin.
Since Latin itself is an Indo-European language to the bone like Avestan and Vedic Sanskrit, therefore all languages that have descended from it are very Indo-European as well.
Thus the Romance language group consists of languages like Spanish, Portugese, French, Italian and Romanian.
The Slavic languages are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples (obviously).
The Slavic languages are thought to have descended from a language of the Early Middle Ages, which we call “Proto-Slavic”.
This language in turn has descended from a shared ancestral language with the Baltic languages called “Proto-Baltic-Slavic”.
The Slavic and Baltic languages have thus a shared group within the Indo-European language family.
The Slavic language group consists of languages like Russian, Ukrainian, Czech, Polish, Macedonian, Serbian, Croatian, Bulgarian and Bosnian.
Hellenic is a synonym for Greek, nevertheless it has its own language group within the Indo-European family.
Greek is often considered to have the closest ties to Graeco-Aryan, which is a hypothetical language within the Indo-European language family.
This language Graeco-Aryan according to the present-day scholarly opinion would be the ancestor of the Greek, Armenian and the Indo-Iranian languages.
The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European family.
Two living languages belonging to this group are Lithuanian and Latvian.
Albanian is a branch in and of itself within the Indo-European language family.
Romani is a special language. It is the only European language that is actually considered to be part of the Indo-Aryan branch.
This is because all Romani (or Gypsies) are descendants of a single ethnic group that left Northern India approximately 1500 years ago.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from a prehistoric language we call Proto-Celtic, which is a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
The Celtic group has languages like Welsh, Irish, Breton and Scottish Gaelic.
Proto-Indo European expansion
The Aryans or Proto-Indo-Europeans whatever name you want to give them, were truly a race of conquerors.
They subdued cultures across Europe and Asia in such an effective way that 6000 years down the line, most of us still converse in languages that contain insane amounts of similarities with the Proto-Indo-European language.
But language is not the only thing we’ve inherited from these conquerors.
Because of these Steppe warriors domesticating the horse, inventing the wheel and the chariot many cultures became oriented towards conquest, mass-warfare and exploration.
Before large scale conquest was not possible, mankind could only travel small distances and live in tiny tribes and communities.
There were only a few great civilizations in existence at that time.
Society was only able to flourish around large river banks like for example at the Nile in Egypt and the Indus Valley in present-day Pakistan.
And ancient Sumeria which laid on the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in present-day Iraq.
However when the horse lords brought the capacity to travel long distances to other tribes around the world, everything changed.
These horse lords carved out Kingdoms for themselves all across Europe and Asia.
They changed the dynamics between different tribes forever.
Proto-Indo-European culture and society
The exact culture of the Proto-Indo-Europeans is still hypothetical in nature.
We do not exactly know what these people were like before they set out to conquer the world.
We only know bits and pieces about them through analyzing the similarities that remained between them after they’ve conquered different cultures.
“O Indra, Giver of enthusiasm in righteous wars, with you as our ally, and aided by heroes in archery, may we conquer our embattled foes. Thus having become good rulers, let us always protect our subjects.”
– Rigveda: Mandala 1, Hymn 8, Mantra 4
The Proto-Indo-Europeans assimilated largely with the cultures they conquered and thus became like them. However even after they merged with other cultures there were still traits that remained purely Proto-Indo-European.
These traits are the ones about which I am 100% sure, there are many more similarities across Indo-European cultures but these ones truly stand out from the rest.
The Proto-Indo-Europeans were predominantly hunters since they were originally a nomadic culture.
They also practiced animal husbandry since they had domesticated horses and cattle.
These animals were an inherent part of Indo-European life and culture. Horses and cows played a central role in all Indo-European mythologies.
From this we know with a certainty that the cow had a high status among the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
A man’s wealth was even measured by the number of horses and cows he owned.
The Proto-Indo-European word for cow was probably “Peku”.
This has been reconstructed from several Indo-European words:
Proto-Indo-Aryan – pasu
Proto-Indo-Iranian – pacu
Sanskrit – pashu
Avestan – pasu
Latin – pecu, pecus (“pecunia” means money in Latin)
Proto-Germanic – fehu
Old Frisian – fia
West Frisian – fee
Old Saxon – fehu
Low German – veeh
Dutch – vee
German – vieh
Old Norse – fe
Lithuanian – pekus
The Proto-Indo-European word for horse was: “hekuos”.
This has been reconstructed from old Indo-European classical languages:
Sanskrit – ashva (from which the name “Ashwin” is derived)
Avestan – aspa
Latin – equus
Greek – hippos
Proto-Germanic – ehwaz
Gaulish – epos
Old English – eoh
We have no clue about what the Proto-Indo-Europeans used to call themselves as a people. We don’t even know if they considered themselves to be one ethnic or linguistic community. They could have been several ethnically different tribes sharing the same common culture and religion.
However what we do know is that they lived in nomadic settlements because almost all Indo-European languages have similar words for it.
Modern day scholars have reconstructed the Proto-Indo-European word for settlement to be: “weiks”.
This is derived from:
Sanskrit – vish
Avestan – vis
Latin – vicus
Ancient Greek – woikos
Polish – wies
Dutch – wijk
Patrilineality is a system of kinship where the membership of a certain family is derived through the father’s lineage.
The whole “I am so and so son of so and so”, is a very Proto-Indo-European trait that has been inherited by cultures all across Europe and Asia.
This system involved the inheritance of property, legal rights, titles or names by sons from their fathers.
We know that each Proto-Indo-European tribe was probably ruled by one chief or ruler, which they called: “Hregs”.
This has been reconstructed from several the Indo-European words:
Proto-Indo-Iranian – hrāgs
Proto-Indo-Aryan – hraja
Sanskrit – rajan
Proto-Italic – reks
Latin – rex
Proto-Celtic – rixs
Gaulish – riks
Proto-Germanic – rikijaz
Old High German – rihhi
Middle High German – riche
German – reich
Old Norse – rikir
Danish – rige
Swedish – rike
Old English – rice
Old Irish – ri
Old Saxon – riki
West Frisian – ryk
Dutch – rijk
All of these words indicate that the Proto-Indo-Europeans were truly concerned with ruling and chiefdom.
All these Indo-European languages have the same sort of words for “rich, king, ruler, empire, lord and chieftain”.
Most Indo-European cultures knew a threefold division in society consisting of priests, warriors and peasant classes.
The last remnant of this Indo-European style societal division is still present today in India (2019).
In India’s rural areas the caste system is still very much alive.
This is because in Hinduism which is the only real Indo-European religion left, there is a caste system that divides society in four:
Brahman = Priests
Kshatriya = Warriors and Rulers
Vaishya = Craftsmen, traders and land owners.
Shudra = Peasants and servants.
The Avesta of ancient Iran divided society in three:
ĀΘRAVAVAN = Priest
ARTĒŠTĀR = Charioteer, warrior or hero.
vāstriia- fšuiiant = Cattle breeders/peasants
The ancient Greeks who were Indo-European to the core as well, had a similar class division in society.
In ancient Athens there were four distinct class:
Athens = Rulers, philosophers and warriors.
Metics = Traders and craftsmen.
Freedmen = Once slaves now lower class non-citizens.
The Slaves = non-Greek prisoners of war or criminals.
The Germanic tribes of Northern Europe:
Jarl = Rulers and noble warriors
Karls= Soldiers, Farmers, Freemen
These type of class divisions were common among all Indo-European style societies, only they’ve started to disappear after Christianity took over many of these people.
The Celtic tribes of Northern Europe and England:
Druids = Priests
Flaith = Warriors and Nobles
Bóaire = Cattle herders
The Proto-Indo-Europeans were very creative poets. In fact poetry was probably a major part of their night time leisure.
We see these traits among all Indo-European people.
Poetry was considered a very manly hobby.
Something warriors and kings did outside of war-time.
The Vedas of the Hindus for example is a collection of divine hymns written down by the Aryans.
The Vedas are the most perfect example of Aryan and Proto-Indo-European culture that we still have today.
This is because from amongst all Indo-Europeans, the Aryans of Iran and Northern India were the only few who actually wrote down their beliefs, culture and history extensively.
“O dispenser of justice possessing noble wealth of all kinds, imperishable by nature as soul and good for all righteous persons, protector of all good things, even if we become unworthy, makes us worthy and noble again and enrich us with thousands of cows and horses as well as senses, plots of land, speech and fire etc.”
– Rigveda: Mandala 1, Hymn 29, Mantra 1
The present-day reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European mythology is grossly based upon the Vedic lore.
Of all Indo-European myths, the Vedic mythology is the only one that is still alive, vibrant and being practiced as we speak.
Therefore the Vedic lore has always been the base foundation into Proto-Indo-European studies.
In addition to the Vedas and Hindu mythology, the Roman and Norse mythologies form a large part of our reconstruction as well.
And last but not least modern scholars have made a reconstruction with supplementation from the Greek, Baltic, Slavic, Zoroastrian and Hittite traditions.
The Proto-Indo-Europeans were pantheists. They believed in natural phenomena and deified them into gods.
The gods were not all-powerful however and neither were they separate from the natural world.
They believed in one almighty power in the universe to which all other powers were subordinate.
This becomes obvious when one reads the creation stories of these mythologies. At the beginning of all these stories, the gods that the Indo-Europeans were actually worshiping did not exist yet.
All stories begin with some primordial being creating the cosmos out of some other primordial entity.
Among the Aryans in Northern India this eventually became Brahman, the universal cosmic consciousness.
Among the Greeks, Romans and Norse this power to which the gods were subordinate was called “Fate”.
Despite the gods not being omnipotent, omnipresent nor omniscient like the Abrahamic god for example; the Proto-Indo-Europeans still worshiped them.
The Proto-Indo-European word for god has been reconstructed as: “deiwos”.
This word has been derived from:
Sanskrit – deva
Avestan – daeva
Hittite – sius
Greek – theos
Latin – deus
Persian – div
Welsh – duw
Irish – dia
Old Norse – tivarr
Lithuanian – dievas
Latvian – dievs
Spanish – dios
French – dieu
Linguists are able to reconstruct some names of Proto-Indo-European deities in the same way that they are able to reconstruct parts of their language. However some of these deities are more accepted by scholars than others.
Dyeus Pater is a direct reconstruction and translation of the Vedic deity called: Dyaus Pita, meaning “Sky Father”.
This is the same deity as the Greek: “Zeus Pater” or simply Zeus the Sky God.
Roman: “Djous Pater” or simply Jupiter.
All of them sky gods and chief deities within their own pantheons. The belief in a patriarchal sky-god is thus something inherently Indo-European because it is so prevalent amongst all major mythologies.
This is further emphasized due to the fact that Zeus is the only Greek deity with such a visible and obvious Indo-European origin.
Hausos is the reconstruction we have made for the Proto-Indo-European deity of the dawn. There are countless amounts of descendants from her among Indo-European religions and mythologies.
Old English: Eostre (Easter)
The dawn goddess is hypothesized to be one of the most important deities to the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
This is because her character does not change much throughout all the mythologies that have adopted her. In addition to that her relevance in the Rigveda as Ushas is quite enormous.
She is believed to be the daughter of the Sky God, however this is not the case in all Indo-European mythologies. She is considered to be a powerful celestial deity.
The whole celebration of Easter among Germanic pagans was always dedicated to Ostara/Eostre instead of Jesus. The rebirth of Jesus has nothing to do with Easter. This was an invention of the church to spread Christianity more easily among pagans.
Sun worship can be found throughout cultures all across the ancient world, especially amongst Indo-European descendants. A solar deity is a sky deity that represents the sun or aspects of its power.
In many Indo-European mythologies the sun was said to travel the sky in a chariot.
For example the Vedic deity Surya is a prime example of this.
In Norse mythology the sun goddess Sol her chariot is drawn through the sky by the horses Arvak and Alsvid.
The Greek Helios drove the chariot of the sun across the sky each day to earth, circling Oceanus and through the world-ocean returned to the East at night.
The Proto-Indo-European name “Sehul” is again of course a reconstruction of several Indo-European sun deities and names for the sun.
Old Norse: Sunna/Sol
Old High German: Sunna
Modern German: Sonne
Old Saxon: Sunna
Old Frisian: Sunne
Middle Dutch: Sonne
Modern Dutch: Zon
Modern English: Sun
The Serpent Myth
In all Indo-European mythologies there is a common myth that underlines the entire purpose of the mythology itself.
The common myth is a battle between some hero/god of mankind and a giant serpent.
It is a common Indo-European belief that the universe is a battleground between order and chaos.
This common belief has been represented by the serpent myth.
In all Indo-European variations of this myth there are certain elements that are always remarkably the same. These similarities have probably been originated in the Proto-Indo-European homeland of the Steppes.
The serpent (sometimes dragon) is usually associated with water (chaos and darkness) in these myths. The hero is often associated with thunder (light and order).
The god of thunder and lightning called Indra, slays the multi-headed serpent Vritra. The god Krishna slays the serpent Kaliya.
The storm god Tarhunt, slays the giant serpent Iluyyanka.
The Greeks got several variations of this story.
Zeus slaying the hundred headed Typhon. The nine headed Hydra slain by Heracles.
The slaying of the python by Apollo.
The nine headed Hydra slain by Hercules.
Thor, the god of thunder, slays the giant serpent Jörmungandr, which lived in the waters surrounding the realm of Midgard (Earth). In another Norse saga the hero Sigurd slays the dragon Fafnir.
The same is done by Beowulf who slays a different dragon in his own epic.
Versions of the Proto-Indo-European serpent-slaying myth are found throughout all other branches of the language family as well.
In Zoroastrianism and Avestan (Persian) mythology Fereydun slays Zahhak.
In Slavic mythology Perun the god of storms slays Veles.
Chaos and order
The hero in these stories always represents light.
The primordial light of the universe.
It represents the natural order of things.
The physical universe is governed by laws and it is only the non-physical which can be chaotic.
Before creation there was just chaos or should I say “darkness”.
The serpent represents chaos and darkness.
The chaos or destruction is always fighting order or creation for the supreme reign of existence.
The Proto-Indo-Europeans were very well aware of this reality thousands of years ago and they’ve represented it throughout their stories.
The universe is not pure order or pure chaos but both.
One can’t exist without the other.
Light can’t exist without darkness.
Light represents creation, so if light has to arise then darkness has to vanish.
Darkness represents destruction, so if darkness wants to prevail then the light has to be destroyed.
These things, the hero and the serpent, represent the endless cycle of death and rebirth in our universe.
The universe dies and is continuously reborn again.
When the universe is active then light has the power, thus the hero conquering the serpent.
When the universe dissolves into itself (as it was before the Big Bang), then the serpent has killed the hero.
The Cosmic Egg
The cosmic egg is seen as the beginnings of the cosmos throughout Indo-European mythologies.
The cosmic egg represents the beginning.
The universe or some primordial being emerges from this egg and lays the foundation for the primordial waters (space).
In Vedic cosmology this egg is known as Hiranyagarbha literally meaning “The Golden Womb”.
The Vedic scriptures hold to the philosophy that Hiranyagarbha floats around in emptiness. Thus it is the creative energetic potential for a physical universe.
Hiranyagarbha breaks in to two halves creating Dyaus and Prithivi, or the Sky and the Earth, Energy and Matter, Chaos and Order, Light and Darkness etc.
The same parable is present with the Greeks, in their myth of the Orphic Egg.
The Proto-Indo-Europeans believed in a certain otherworld (not underworld).
This is often misrepresented as a hellish dark world but this is due to the ignorance of Abrahamic religions that have polluted the Indo-European wisdom.
All Indo-European people believed strongly in reincarnation, it is self-evident when you read the mythological stories.
This otherworld functions as a temporary world for the spirit to adapt itself for the next life. In the Persian, Greek, Germanic, Celtic, Slavic and Vedic mythologies a river has to be crossed before you can reach the underworld.
Usually there is an old man (ancient spirit) that will guide us to the other side of the shore.
Often it is the river that washes away the memories of the deceased and fills it with inspiration for the next life.
The Aryan Traits
To be an Aryan has nothing to do with race as I’ve explained extensively by now.
The title Aryan has to be deserved.
The word Aryan refers to the culmination of noble qualities and virtues in a man.
These Proto-Indo-Europeans have truly set the standard for what a noble human being should be.
Bravery – The Aryans were master conquerors and did not fear the unknown world around them. We should become brave conquerors in our own daily lives. Conquer your dreams, conquer your fears and conquer the minds of those around you.
Strength – A person can never be noble if he isn’t strong or capable of defending his community/family. A weak man can never be a good man.
Faith – The Aryans were not gods nor were they omniscient. Despite that they held strong and fast to a lot of significant beliefs that are still present within a lot of religions, spiritual movements and occult societies today. They discovered things through their own curiosity of the natural world. You can’t be an Aryan and not care about the universe and the divine.
Atheism is an anti-Aryan quality.
Creative knowledge – The Aryans were master inventors. The chariot and the wheel itself are signs of advanced mastery of sciences.
The hymns they wrote in the Vedas actually contain vasts amounts of knowledge about things which we can’t possibly imagine. The Aryans that invaded India actually considered flying around in the sky to be possible. It is right there in the Vedas and shows their high quality ways of thinking.
“O learned persons! You should make use of fire and water, which can manifest divine qualities. They make people touch the sky through aeroplanes and other vehicles which are instrumental in quickening the movements.”
– Rigveda: Mandala 1, Hymn 3, Verse 1
Consider then that this Vedic hymn was written down around 1500 BC.
The Aryans were truly an extraordinary people.